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Subqueries with ALL

Description

The word ALL, which must follow a comparison operator, means “return TRUE if the comparison is TRUE for ALL of the values in the column that the subquery returns.”:

operand comparison_operator ALL (subquery)

For example:

SELECT s1 FROM t1 WHERE s1 > ALL (SELECT s1 FROM t2);

Suppose that there is a row in table t1 containing (10). The expression is TRUE if table t2 contains (-5,0,+5) because 10 is greater than all three values in t2. The expression is FALSE if table t2 contains (12,6,NULL,-100) because there is a single value 12 in table t2 that is greater than 10, and the result returns Empty set. The expression is unknown (that is, NULL) if table t2 contains (0,NULL,1).

Finally, the expression is TRUE if table t2 is empty. So, the following expression is TRUE when table t2 is empty:

SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE 1 > ALL (SELECT s1 FROM t2);

But this expression is NULL when table t2 is empty:

SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE 1 > (SELECT s1 FROM t2);

In addition, the following expression is NULL when table t2 is empty:

SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE 1 > ALL (SELECT MAX(s1) FROM t2);

In general, tables containing NULL values and empty tables are “edge cases.” When writing subqueries, always consider whether you have taken those two possibilities into account.

Syntax

> SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name {WHERE | HAVING} [not] expression comparison_operator ALL (subquery)

Examples

> create table t1 (a int);
> create table t2 (a int, b int);
> create table t3 (a int);
> create table t4 (a int not null, b int not null);
> create table t5 (a int);
> create table t6 (a int, b int);
> insert into t1 values (2);
> insert into t2 values (1,7),(2,7);
> insert into t4 values (4,8),(3,8),(5,9);
> insert into t5 values (null);
> insert into t3 values (6),(7),(3);
> insert into t6 values (10,7),(null,7);
> select * from t3 where a <> all (select b from t2);
+------+
| a    |
+------+
|    6 |
|    3 |
+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

> select * from t4 where 5 > all (select a from t5);
+------+------+
| a    | b    |
+------+------+
|    4 |    8 |
|    3 |    8 |
|    5 |    9 |
+------+------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

> select * from t3 where 10 > all (select b from t2);
+------+
| a    |
+------+
|    6 |
|    7 |
|    3 |
+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Constraints

MatrixOne does not support selecting multiple columns for the subquery.