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Shard Splitting

A Shard is a data partition, or a data slice. A distributed system ususally cut a big data trunk to pieces, and put these pieces to different machines to increase the overall storage capability and handle greater workloads. A Shard will also have several Replicas to maintain a high availability. All these Replicas form a Raft-Group.

In our design, a created new table is a Shard. A Shard has a certain size limit defined by a user-defined parameter.

As data size of a table increases, it will exceed the size limit of a Shard. At this moment, a Shard Splitting will occur. The original Shard will be cut in into two Shards, each Shard has a relatively equal storage level. In the meantime, all other Replicas of this Raft-Group will be splitted with the same behavior. The original Raft-Group will be removed, and two new Raft-Groups will be created .

Once two new Raft-Groups are created, a re-election will immediately be hold. In most cases, the original Replica leader will still be elected as leaders.

The belowing diagram illustrates how the shard splitting works:

Shard Splitting